(c) 2007-2015 Derek  W. Logue. No part of this website may be used in any way without expressed written consent of the site owner.
“Your 15 Minutes: Making the most of your media moment”
By: Derek W. Logue
Published August 8, 2014
[
CLICK HERE to download the Powerpoint presentation given at a 2014 Conference]

SUMMARY

The purpose of this article is to help reform activists prepare for a variety of media interviews for print media (both Internet and traditional
paper media), radio and television (including online video interviews). The media is a powerful tool for promotion; however, interviews can be
an intimidating experience. Thankfully there are a number of techniques you can utilize to better prepare for the interview experience. This
article addresses the typical forms of media interviews, the interview style to beware, and how to identify and address interviewers with hidden
agendas. Also included are various techniques you can utilize before and during the actual interviews, such as practice interviews, body
language exercises, and preparing brief talking points.

Part 1: The media and you

“Visibility equals credibility [1].” This simple statement forms the most basic tenet of marketing. The Sex Offender Reform Movement is in need
of a strong marketing campaign, yet our numbers are few and our resources fewer. So what is the most efficient way for our movement to
become visible? The best answer is the media.

Mass media is the primary source of information in society. A 2010 Pew Research Center poll found 99% of Americans view at least one news
story daily; 92% of Americans (92%) use multiple platforms to get news on a typical day, including national TV, local TV, the internet, local
newspapers, radio, and national newspapers; 46% of Americans say they get news from four to six media platforms on a typical day; 7% get
their news from a single media platform on atypical day; more than half of American adults (56%) say they follow the news “all or most of the
time,” and another quarter (25%) follow the news at least “some of the time [
2].”

The Pew study also determined which media outlets are most utilized by the public. Television is still the most utilized media outlet, followed by
the internet, radio, and print media. Below is a specific breakdown of American media usage:  

•        78% of Americans say they get news from a local TV station
•        73% say they get news from a national networks or cable news (CNN, Fox)
•        61% say they get some kind of news online
•        54% say they listen to a radio news program at home or in the car
•        50% say they read news in a local newspaper
•        17% say they read news in a national newspaper (NYTimes, USA Today) [3]

It should not be surprising that our political leaders obtain most of their information from the media, which they use to shape their legislative
decision-making. As noted in a Minnesota Public Radio story in 2007, “misinformation and a lack of information often shapes sex offender
policy…Most of the legislators in [a study by Lisa Sample of U. of Nebraska- Omaha] said their primary source of information was the news
media.” In most cases, lawmakers didn’t read studies/ reports relevant to legislation they supported. Sample found most sex offender
legislation follows the abduction and murder of a child, and the resulting public outrage. In Minnesota, a panel of experts completed a
comprehensive report to serve as a guide for sex offender policy in the state. One of the report’s authors says the biggest challenge is just
getting lawmakers to read it [4]. It seems many legislators made up their minds long before the comprehensive report hit their desks.

So far I have stated the obvious. The media has the power to shape public opinion and public policy. So how do we tap into this powerful
resource? First, we must understand a few points of fact and fiction about the media and its influence over people.

FICTION: The media must report both sides of a story.

The Fairness Doctrine was a policy of the United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC), introduced in 1949, that required the
holders of broadcast licenses to both present controversial issues of public importance and to do so in a manner that was, in the Commission's
view, honest, equitable and balanced. The Fairness Doctrine had two basic elements: It required broadcasters to devote some of their airtime
to discussing controversial matters of public interest, and to air contrasting views regarding those matters. The main agenda for the doctrine
was to ensure that viewers were exposed to a diversity of viewpoints [
5]. The FCC decided to eliminate the Doctrine in 1987, and in August
2011 the FCC formally removed the language that implemented the Doctrine [
6].

That being said, the media sometimes seeks a conflicting opinion. Some are not even aware there is a dissenting opinion on sex offender
laws. This might work to your advantage as you make contact with media personalities.

FACT: The media can have an agenda and can influence the people to accept this agenda.

One popular theory on how the media influences the public is called “agenda-setting theory.” “Agenda-setting theory” describes the "ability [of
the news media] to influence the salience of topics on the public agenda [7]." That is, if a news item is covered frequently and prominently the
audience will regard the issue as more important. Agenda-setting is the creation of public awareness and concern of salient issues by the
news media. Two basic assumptions underlie most research on agenda-setting:

1.        The press and the media do not reflect reality; they filter and shape it; and
2.        Media concentration on a few issues and subjects leads the public to perceive those issues as more important than other issues. [
8]

One of the most critical aspects in the concept of an agenda-setting role of mass communication is the time frame for this phenomenon. In
addition, different media have different agenda-setting potential.

No discussion of media influence would be complete without understanding the term propaganda and how it differs from persuasion.  
“Propaganda is the deliberate, systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions, and direct behavior to achieve a response
that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist [9].” Propaganda is intended to achieve a goal for the propagandist, not necessarily for the
public. The media tends to be propagandistic by nature.

By contrast, “Persuasion as a subset of communication is usually defined as a communicative process to influence others. A persuasive
message has a point of view or desired behavior for the recipient to adopt in a voluntary fashion [10]”; Purpose is to reach a common goal that
satisfies all parties; synonyms for persuasion are dialogue and compromise. The process of persuasion is reciprocal and voluntary.

Mass media can be both persuasive and propagandistic, though it heavily leans towards the latter. We tend to think of propaganda as
negative because of recent historical events, most particularly the association with the term with Hitler and the Nazis. However, propaganda is
a part of everyday life, such as awareness campaigns, advertising, and websites. Even our movement can be considered “propaganda” by
those outside the cause. Thus, it is important to recognize that not all propaganda is inherently bad.

FICTION: The media will fact-check and give you the objective truth.

John Stossel succinctly summarizes the media reporting process: “Many in the media are scientifically clueless, and will scare you to death. We
don't do it on purpose. We just want to give you facts. But the people who bring us story ideas are alarmed. Then we get alarmed, and eager
to rush that news to you. We know that the scarier and more bizarre the story, the more likely it is that our bosses will give us more air time or
a front-page slot. The scary story, justified or not, will get higher ratings and sell more papers. Fear sells. That's the reason for the insiders'
joke about local newscasts: ‘If it bleeds, it leads.’ Also, raising alarms makes us feel important. If we bothered to keep digging until we found
the better scientific experts, rather than the ones who send out press releases, we'd get the real story. But reporters rarely know whom to call.
And if we did, many real scientists don't want to be bothered. Why get involved in a messy debate?” [11]

Many activists do what politicians and reporters may not do—read the facts. We read, analyze, and summarize complex data to reach a logical
conclusion. The primary reason for this is we simply have the time and the desire to do so. Reporters and politicians have short deadlines to
devote to a bill or a topic. We are experts in sex offender issues, but we aren’t highly visible because you are a small, grassroots organization.
The media may approaches for an interview, but we can't always rely on the “wait-and-see” method of attracting attention. We need to be
more proactive, which brings me to the next fact:

FACT: The news media is receptive to story ideas

It can be difficult at times to get attention, but not entirely impossible. Thanks in part to the Internet, we can influence stories in many ways.
The most common form of activism in our grassroots campaign is commenting on articles of interest. On occasion, these comments are read
by the editor, it may appear in later articles on the subject. However, there are other strategies we can utilize to raise awareness or our cause.
Many media outlets allow us to write “letters to the editor” or editorials [12] . Sometimes, you may even be told to contact the reporter directly,
expressing your concerns with the article, asking if the reporter is interested in doing a follow-up story, and offer yourself up as an interviewee
for further discussions on the topic. It is possible to proactively suggest a topic for a show or news story if you can suggest an idea to the news
editor or producer.

FACT: The media can debunk myths as well as create them

“While a major focus of this book is here mongering by journalists and others, throughout the chapters that follow I take note as well of
reporters who bring to light serious dangers about which the public hears little from politicians, corporations, and most of the media. Indeed,
again and again I find that it is reporters, rather than government oversight organizations, academics, or other professional truth seekers, who
debunked silly or exaggerated scares that other journalists irresponsibly promulgate. Unfortunately, however, these correctives often occur
long after whole sectors of the populace have been scared senseless [13] .”

Controversy sells. Our movement represents a dissenting and, at times in the eyes of the media, a “controversial” opinion. Thus, we have a
golden opportunity to challenge some of the most prevailing myths about sex offenders in our culture. At times, we can find individuals willing
to consider our position. We have the evidence on our side, and because of our degree of knowledge, we can become a valuable resource to
reporters looking for a dissenting opinion.

FICTION: Being in the media guarantees you will be an instant celebrity

The media, and its consumers, tend to have short-term memories (Think of the movie“50 First Dates”). However, constant exposure to our
message is having an impact on the media. The more we get out there, the better our returns.

If you represent an organization or an activist website, you may see a spike in site visitors but will go away in a day or two. If you run your own
site, perhaps you can make a message welcoming people coming in from the show and directing them to what they need to see most. The
good news is media exposure increases our credibility as an expert in the field. I can state that “Derek Logue is a nationally recognized expert
on sex offender laws, with over two dozen media appearances including CNN and HLN” because it is a fact. Visibility equals credibility.

Types of media

Media types can be categorized as one of three mediums – radio, television, and print. The Internet's can fall into any of these three
categories, because it can offer all three mediums through podcasts (radio), streaming video or YouTube (television) and websites, blogs, or
news stories (print). Each medium have specific requirements (and a personality) you should understand before the interview.

Radio: The main feature of radio is that it is a personal medium. Radio gives the illusion of a one-to-one relationship, which means that you
should adopt an appropriate style when you go on radio programs. You should adopt a friendly approach in interviews on programs such as
talkback. In radio you are talking to or with people, not at them. The radio message is a fleeting moment of sound. It is not the medium for
complex explanations or lists of facts and statistics. The listeners have to be able to grasp your point at one pass of the information, as there is
no visual reinforcement and no hard copy to check back for verifications [
14].

The Radio Interview Experience

  • Very few “shock jocks” cover news stories of importance, so you will likely speak with a news reporter with a soft spoken voice and a
    casual environment.
  • Radio Interviews are typically over the phone (call-in).
  • There is no note-taking, and you are generally allowed to speak freely with minimal direction, and is a good opportunity to promote
    yourself
  • Since people won’t be taking notes, it is better to use anecdotes and stories rather than spend a lot of time giving hard facts. Share a
    couple of basic facts and follow up with shocking stories (“Did you know Texas lists 10 year old kids on the registry”?)

Print: Press interviews have similar requirements as electronic media in terms of news value and brevity. The apparent relaxed nature of
press interviews should not lull you into a false sense of security. Ensure you get your key messages in early, be careful of rambling and place
tonal emphasis on key messages. A trick for press interviews over the phone is to stand up while doing the interview - it will give you a lot more
confidence [15].

The Print/Press Media Experience

  • You will most likely be talking with someone one-on-one, either by phone or in person (the reporter sometimes comes to your house)
  • These types of interviews tend to be relaxed and open, allowing you to offer a lot of knowledge and stories about the topic.
  • Watch for pauses and, if in person, the reporter is jotting something down, because he or she thinks that is important. Be sure to be
    clear on key points. Reporters rarely record conversations, they go by their notes.
  • Expect to only see a few lines of quotes in a news story. TV Interviews sometimes have a corresponding print version of the story on
    their news websites.

Television: Television is demanding in the sense that the audience can see you as well as hear you. Your body language, dress, background
and movement all contribute to communication with the audience. To appear credible on television, you must sound and look credible. Sit
rather than stand, as you need controlled movement and remember to use slow, controlled gestures. Review your appearance before the
interview, ensuring your dress, hair and facial expression come across credible. The power of television is its visual impact; you must be brief,
to the point and get the key message across in a limited time. Allow yourself time to think, look away and think about the question (look down
to the floor not to the ceiling). Use silence instead of filler words such as ‘um’ while thinking [16] .

The TV News Experience:

  • Local media:
  • Most likely a one-on-one interview, highly edited. Interviews can be up to an hour long, and edited down to a two or three minute
    segment.
  • National Media:
  • Can be a one-on-one edited segment but more likely a short, live segment of 3 to 6 minutes; expect to only get a couple of
    minutes tops to stress a point.
  • May be on a panel discussion; thus, you will be sharing time with someone who has a conflicting, often extreme opinion and highly
    confrontational
  • On a syndicated network show, expect a pre-appearance interview or two from the producers; they want to ensure you can give
    clear answers and be entertaining

Journalism genres

“Journalism genre” is defined here as the classification of the style, approach or pattern utilized by a media outlet. Some forms include:

  1. Advocacy journalism – Writing to advocate particular viewpoints or influence the opinions of the audience. (THAT’S US!)
  2. Broadcast journalism – Written or spoken journalism for radio or television.
  3. Investigative journalism – The use of investigation on a subject matter while uncovering news events.
  4. Gonzo journalism – Characterized by its punchy style, rough language, and ostensible disregard for conventional journalistic writing
    forms and customs (Many Cable TV shows like Nancy Grace)
  5. Tabloid journalism – Writing that is light-hearted and entertaining.
  6. Sensationalism (“Yellow Journalism”) – A type of editorial bias in mass media in which events and topics in news stories and pieces are
    over-hyped to increase viewership or readership numbers.. Sensationalism may include reporting about generally insignificant matters
    and events that don't influence overall society and biased presentations of newsworthy topics in a trivial or tabloid manner
  7. Parachute journalism – The practice of thrusting journalists into an area to report on a story in which the reporter has little knowledge or
    experience. (MOST journalists fall into this category regarding sex offender issues).

The media is an important utility for information dissemination. The media gives us the opportunity to reach a larger audience. However, media
interviews can be intimidating, especially if you are not adequately prepared. The next section covers tips on preparing for the media interview.

Part 2: The Media Interview

The first step in preparing for your interview is identifying the type of interview being conducted. This is important because some types of
interviews need more preparation than others. There are several types of media interviews:

  1. Newsgathering Interview - To collect facts or history about a subject, either for a story or in preparation for another interview.        
  2. Confirmation Interview - To check the validity of a report or a rumor or to get a second source on an important piece of information.
  3. Reaction Interview - To gather reaction or responses to breaking news.        
  4. Person-on-the-street Interview - To seek input from diverse members of a community.
  5. Experts Interview - To add the expertise of a knowledgeable source to your story.
  6. Balance Interview - To show the many facets of a story by getting multiple viewpoints.
  7. Q & A Interview - To present the info in a question and answer format.        
  8. Advance Interview - To gather info and write about an upcoming event/person
  9. In-depth Interview - To engage in a long form, conversation for a profile feature story or an enterprise story.
  10. Gotcha Interview - To confront a subject, often with incriminating or embarrassing information.  [17]

There is one particular interview format worthy of special attention—the dreaded “Panel discussion.” I believe the panel discussion is the worst
case scenario. Certain cable news programs utilize this format; these are often designed to be unruly debates, and panelists are often
handpicked because they offer an extreme point of view.  

Choose wisely in accepting interviews. You do not need to grant every interview request. Carefully consider whether to participate in an
interview that:

•        Would compromise you in any way;
•        Is out of your range of expertise;
•        Is in a panel format.

There is no shame in referring the potential interviewer to someone else if you don’t feel up to the task.

One fact you will have to accept is you have limited control over the interview or the subsequent article or report. One phenomenon that tends
to occur in most articles where Registered Citizens and their supporters are featured is the phenomenon I like to call “the big BUT.” The “Big
BUT” is the point of the story a journalist adds a conflicting opinion that tends to damper a good article, generally with the word “but” as the
beginning of the re-BUT-tal (pun intended) A Big but article may state, for example, “John says the sex offender registry harms his family. BUT
Jane of Save the Kids, Inc. says the registry saves kids.” There is not much you can do but give the best interview you can give and try not to
worry about the “other side of the issue.”

Interviewer personalities

The modern media, especially cable TV and radio shows, often hire individuals who offer entertainment value as well as covering a topic.
Examples of these entertainment-oriented interviewers include Dr. Drew, Nancy Grace, Glenn Beck, or Rush Limbaugh. Of course, this
behavior may not be limited to the obvious examples. When approached for an interview, watch for these distinct interview personality types
and prepare a counter-strategy:

  • The Rapid Fire or Machine Gunner Questioner: This type of interviewer asks several questions quickly and all at once. The best way to
    deal with this kind of interview is to answer the question you want to with a key message.
  • The Paraphrasing Parrot: The interviewer paraphrases what you have said. This can be dangerous. You must listen carefully and
    correct immediately any information that strays from the original statements made.
  • The Disrupter: The interviewer asks another question or interrupts before you are finished. In this kind of situation you can ask the
    interviewer, “please let me finish my answer…” If your key messages can be conveyed in 10 seconds or less you should not have a
    problem. You can also continue answering the question despite interruptions.
  • Negative Leader: This type of interview will pin negative labels on you. Correct the negatives with the positives.
  • The Bully: Make sure to answer their key question only and don’t get mad. You can ask them to repeat the question and use pauses. It’s
    also fine to re-phrase the question in your own words before you answer it. Always be polite. Don’t be intimidated, remain calm, avoid
    confrontation and stick to key messages.
  • The overly friendly interviewer: They will either enjoy  enjoy meeting you or enjoy disarming you, especially in the pre-interview
    screening and then go ‘in for the kill’ while recording. Be cautious, but not cold.
  • The ‘last minute’ interviewer: This is an opportunity for you to take control of the interview. This reporter has probably been assigned
    the story last minute without having time to do all the background research. Be prepared for ill-informed questions.  [18]

One tactic in particular is worthy of further discussion. If the journalist asks the same question repeatedly in different ways, the interviewer is
probably fishing for a specific answer to fit his or her agenda. A prime example of this tactic comes from my interview with the Cincinnati
Enquirer in July 2007. During the interview, the reporter asked if I moved to Ohio because the laws were more lax. I said, “No, I moved to Ohio
because one program in Florida that accepted me reneged on the offer, and the Ohio move was a last minute decision.” He then asked if Ohio
is more lax than Florida, I responded the residency restrictions were not as tough (Ohio’s restrictions was 1000 feet from schools only, while
Florida has restrictions as high as 2500 feet)

In the actual article, the reporter made the following statement:  “Some, like Logue, say sex offender laws are more lenient than in other states.
‘I was supposed to go to Florida, but Florida was too tough on sex offenders,’ he says.” The reporter then discussed how Florida registers
people for life (not all registrants) while Ohio only registers some registrants for 20 years [19]. The agenda was a belief that Cincinnati was a
“Mecca for sex offenders.” Unfortunately, a blatant misquote helped perpetuate a local myth.

There are a few keys you can use to prepare for an interview.

  • Do your research. Read up on the topic at hand. Cram like you are going to take a test.
  • Choose your words wisely: Key points tend to be remembered when they are short, sweet, and to the point. Most media interviews rely
    on one or two key points to “sell” the story; Develop “catchphrases”; understand semantics.
  • “Know thy enemy:” Research the reporter (and any panelists, if in a panel discussion). Watch the show or read the articles the reporter
    writes. Don’t be afraid to ask questions about the interview format.
  • Practice makes perfect! Practice an interview with a fellow activist, and ask for feedback. Some activist groups may offer to conduct
    mock interviews as practice (Such as Tom Madison’s “Radio Role Play” course).
  • Don’t be afraid to set a couple of guidelines, such as No “P” Words (Pervert, pedophile, predator). Develop “thick skin” for the things
    you can’t control.
  • Time yourself: Use a clock with a second hand or a stopwatch as a visual aid to time your answers. Aim to answer in 15-30 seconds in
    most circumstances.

Body Language

Our body influences our mind, our mind influences our behavior, and our behavior influences our outcomes. Therefore, understanding the
role body language plays in preparation is imperative. Powerful people “make themselves big” or expand; powerless people slump, wrap up,
and shrink. We compliment the non-verbal actions of those we converse with– when the other is powerful, we shrink, and when we are
powerful, the other shrinks. Truly powerful people have high dominance (testosterone) coupled with low stress (cortisol). You may not feel
confident now, but studies on body language have concluded you can “fake it until you make become it!” Practice power posing before and
use them during interviews, even if you are not on TV. “Tiny tweaks” in body language lead to “big changes” in your confidence over time. [
20]

The “Two Minute Drill”

Try these techniques before every interview, even practice interviews, and it may help you physically prepare for the interview. Pick a “Power
Pose” and hold it for two minutes. A power pose is a stance of confidence; typical power poses include standing with your feet shoulder-width
apart with your hands on your hips and standing tall (a.k.a. the “Superhero pose”), raising your hands over your head in a “victory pose,” or
sitting in a relaxed position with your legs spread and your body leaned back with your hands behind your head. Before a speech or important
telephone call, allow your voice to relax into its optimal pitch by keeping your lips together and making the sounds “um hum, um hum, um hum.”
And if you are a female, watch that your voice doesn’t rise at the ends of sentences as if you are asking a question or seeking approval.
Instead, when stating your opinion, use the authoritative arc, in which your voice starts on one note, rises in pitch through the sentence and
drops back down at the end. Right before you enter the meeting room, take a deep breath and exhale through your mouth. (If you are
unobserved, make a soft “ahh” sound.) Doing so releases the tension in your neck, shoulders and jaw that can make you look rigid or
aggressive [21].

To tell or not to tell: Your personal testimony

If you are a Registered Citizen or a loved one of a Registrant, you may consider whether or not to discuss your personal story. Personal and
emotional stories can be power statements against sex offender laws. However, your personal story can be a weapon to be used against you.
The decision to address your story is up to you; do so if you feel confident you can handle the pressure of potential attacks against you. If you
do, be honest and choose your words carefully; the competition likely knows your story (or at least what they assume is your story). If you
choose not to, then state you do not wish to discuss the case. “I’m not here to discuss my own past.” Remember, you don’t have to answer any
question, but failing to address a question can have potentially negative consequences [
22].

During The Interview

Below are 10 really good tips for answering media questions:

  1. Answer clearly using key messages;
  2. Say “I don’t know the answer to that question, but I’ll get back to you.” (print reporters only);
  3. Say “I don’t know, but what I can tell you is...” (for radio and television);
  4. Say “I’m not going to answer that question, and I’ll tell you why”;
  5. Side step and bridge to a key message. “That’s not really the issue here. The issue is…”;
  6. Take the time you need to formulate answers;
  7. Quotes are 20-25 words on average;
  8. You are the expert;
  9. Smile;
  10. If you don’t understand a question, you can ask for it to be repeated. [23]

One key strategy during the interview is learning to “take charge.” Either you or the reporter controls the interview – so take the lead. Below
are a few leading strategies:

  • Hooking: not completing an answer or throwing out a “hook”
  • Bridging: transitioning to your agenda after answering a question
  • Flagging: break up your answer into a number of important points and say so  [24]

There are a few things you can do after your media interview to help further the cause. If possible, make follow-up contact with the reporter or
the other show guests. Building a good rapport and/or supplementing the issues you raised in the interview with your references helps solidify
credibility. There are hundreds of active members in our cause, and not everyone will love your interview. Don’t be hard on yourself. No one is
perfect. Try not to fall into the “should’ve, could’ve, would’ve” and similar thinking traps. Every media interview, no matter how you feel about
the interview, is exposure for our cause (“street cred”). The only bad exposure is no exposure. Our “15 minutes” is generally about a day or
two. The media has short term memory, as will the audience, especially in the national TV/ radio media. So don’t beat yourself up over a “bad
interview” and don’t listen to the haters.

CONCLUSION

The media is a powerful tool for spreading the message when used properly. Remember: We are on the unpopular side of the sex offender
law debate. The other side may grant us a voice, but expect biased opinions, personal insults, and unequal debates. Stick to your guns and
develop thick skin, and you can win people to the side of truth.

FOR MORE INFORMATION


REFERENCES

  1. Quoted by Michael Levine, Founder of Levine Communications Office, from “The Greatest Movie Ever Sold”
  2. Source: Kristen Purcell, Lee Rainie, Amy Mitchell, Tom Rosensteil & Kenny Olmstead. “Understanding the participatory news consumer.”
    Pew Research Center, March 1, 2010. http://www.pewinternet.org/files/old-
    media//Files/Reports/2010/PIP_Understanding_the_Participatory_News_Consumer.pdf
  3. Ibid.
  4. Dan Gunderson, “A Better Approach to Sex Offender Policy.” Minnesota Public Radio, June 18th, 2007. See also: Lisa L. Sample and
    Colleen Kadleck, “Sex Offender Laws: Legislators' Accounts of the Need for Policy.” Criminal Justice Policy Review 2008; 19; 40
  5. Rendall, Steve (2005-02-12). "The Fairness Doctrine: How We Lost it, and Why We Need it Back". Common Dreams (Fairness and
    Accuracy In Reporting). Retrieved 2008-11-13. http://www.commondreams.org/views05/0212-03.htm
  6. Boliek, Brooks (August 22, 2011). "FCC finally kills off fairness doctrine". POLITICO. http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0811/61851.
    html
  7. McCombs, M; Reynolds, A (2002). "News influence on our pictures of the world". Media effects: Advances in theory and research.
  8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agenda-setting_theory
  9. Garth S. Jowett and Victoria O’Donnell. Propaganda and Persuasion. [Fourth Edition] Thousand Oaks CA, Sage Publications. 2006. p.7
  10. Ibid., p.31-32
  11. John Stossel, Myths, Lies and Downright Stupidity. NYC, Hyperion Books, 2006. p.2-3
  12. For some tips on writing an Op-Ed or letter to the editor, see the video from the 2014 RSOL Conference from Steven Yoder, “Writing Op-
    Eds and Letters To The Editor.” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TyaFbBKbbFE
  13. Barry Glassner, “Culture of Fear” (10th Anniversary Edition), NYC, Perseus Books, 2009. p. xvi
  14. Catriona Pollard . “How to deal with different types of media interviews.” Monday, April 06, 2009 http://www.cpcommunications.com.
    au/_blog/pr_social_media_update/post/how-to-deal-with-different-types-of-media-interviews
  15. Ibid.
  16. Ibid.
  17. Source: Knight Community News Network. http://www.kcnn.org/interviewing/chapter2
  18. Program Training and Consultation Centre, The Media Network | Challenging Types of Media Interviews. https://www.ptcc-cfc.on.
    ca/common/pages/UserFile.aspx?fileId=104867
  19. Gregory Korte, “Housing, programs provide a magnet.” Cincinnati Enquirer, July 29, 2007.
  20. Amy Cuddy, “Your body language shapes who you are.” TED Talks, Oct. 1, 2012. http://youtu.be/Ks-_Mh1QhMc  
  21. From: Carol Kinsey Goman, “10 Simple and Powerful Body Language Tips for 2012.” Forbes.com, Jan. 3, 2012. http://www.forbes.
    com/sites/carolkinseygoman/2012/01/03/10-simple-and-powerful-body-language-tips-for-2012/, and Carol Kinsey Goman, “10 Simple
    And Powerful Body Language Tips For 2014.” Forbes.com, Jan. 2, 2014. http://www.forbes.com/sites/carolkinseygoman/2014/01/02/10-
    simple-and-powerful-body-language-tips-for-2014
  22. See also RSOL 2013: “Telling Your Story to the Media.” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WPqaLRSssIQ#t=104
  23. Program Training and Consultation Centre, The Media Network | Challenging Types of Media Interviews. https://www.ptcc-cfc.on.
    ca/common/pages/UserFile.aspx?fileId=104867
  24. Ibid.